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If you had a function named bacon in a module named spam, how would you call it after importing spam? How can you prevent a program from crashing when it gets an error?

What goes in the try clause? What goes in the except clause? Practice Projects For practice, write programs to do the following tasks. The Collatz Sequence Write a function named collatz that has one parameter named number. Then write a program that lets the user type in an integer and that keeps calling collatz on that number until the function returns the value 1.

The output of this program could look something like this: Enter number: 3 10 5 16 8 4 2 1 Input Validation Add try and except statements to the previous project to detect whether the user types in a noninteger string. Normally, the int function will raise a ValueError error if it is passed a noninteger string, as in int ‘puppy’. In the except clause, print a message to the user saying they must enter an integer. Lists and tuples can contain multiple values, which makes it easier to write programs that handle large amounts of data.

And since lists themselves can contain other lists, you can use them to arrange data into hierarchical structures. The List Data Type A list is a value that contains multiple values in an ordered sequence. The term list value refers to the list itself which is a value that can be stored in a variable or passed to a function like any other value , not the values inside the list value.

A list value looks like this: [‘cat’, ‘bat’, ‘rat’, ‘elephant’]. Just as string values are typed with quote characters to mark where the string begins and ends, a list begins with an opening square bracket and ends with a closing square bracket, [].

Values inside the list are also called items. Items are separated with commas that is, they are comma-delimited. But the list value itself contains other values.

The value [] is an empty list that contains no values, similar to ”, the empty string. Getting Individual Values in a List with Indexes Say you have the list [‘cat’, ‘bat’, ‘rat’, ‘elephant’] stored in a variable named spam. The Python code spam[0] would evaluate to ‘cat’, and spam[1] would evaluate to ‘bat’, and so on.

The integer inside the square brackets that follows the list is called an index. The first value in the list is at index 0, the second value is at index 1, the third value is at index 2, and so on. Figure shows a list value assigned to spam, along with what the index expressions would evaluate to. A list value stored in the variable spam, showing which value each index refers to For example, type the following expressions into the interactive shell.

Start by assigning a list to the variable spam. Python will give you an IndexError error message if you use an index that exceeds the number of values in your list value. For example, spam[0][1] prints ‘bat’, the second value in the first list. If you only use one index, the program will print the full list value at that index. Negative Indexes While indexes start at 0 and go up, you can also use negative integers for the index. The integer value -1 refers to the last index in a list, the value -2 refers to the second-to-last index in a list, and so on.

A slice is typed between square brackets, like an index, but it has two integers separated by a colon. Notice the difference between indexes and slices. In a slice, the first integer is the index where the slice starts.

A slice goes up to, but will not include, the value at the second index. A slice evaluates to a new list value. Leaving out the first index is the same as using 0, or the beginning of the list. Leaving out the second index is the same as using the length of the list, which will slice to the end of the list.

However, you can also use an index of a list to change the value at that index. All of the values in the list after the deleted value will be moved up one index. If you try to use the variable after deleting it, you will get a NameError error because the variable no longer exists. In practice, you almost never need to delete simple variables. The del statement is mostly used to delete values from lists. It turns out that this is a bad way to write code.

For one thing, if the number of cats changes, your program will never be able to store more cats than you have variables. These types of programs also have a lot of duplicate or nearly identical code in them. Consider how much duplicate code is in the following program, which you should enter into the file editor and save as allMyCats1. This new version uses a single list and can store any number of cats that the user types in. In a new file editor window, type the following source code and save it as allMyCats2.

Using for Loops with Lists In Chapter 2, you learned about using for loops to execute a block of code a certain number of times. Technically, a for loop repeats the code block once for each value in a list or list-like value.

For example, if you ran this code: for i in range 4 : print i the output of this program would be as follows: 0 1 2 3 This is because the return value from range 4 is a list-like value that Python considers similar to [0, 1, 2, 3]. The following program has the same output as the previous one: for i in [0, 1, 2, 3]: print i What the previous for loop actually does is loop through its clause with the variable i set to a successive value in the [0, 1, 2, 3] list in each iteration.

NOTE In this book, I use the term list-like to refer to data types that are technically named sequences. A common Python technique is to use range len someList with a for loop to iterate over the indexes of a list. Best of all, range len supplies will iterate through all the indexes of supplies, no matter how many items it contains.

Like other operators, in and not in are used in expressions and connect two values: a value to look for in a list and the list where it may be found. These expressions will evaluate to a Boolean value. Open a new file editor window, enter the following code, and save it as myPets. The method part comes after the value, separated by a period.

Each data type has its own set of methods. The list data type, for example, has several useful methods for finding, adding, removing, and otherwise manipulating values in a list. Finding a Value in a List with the index Method List values have an index method that can be passed a value, and if that value exists in the list, the index of the value is returned. The insert method can insert a value at any index in the list. The first argument to insert is the index for the new value, and the second argument is the new value to be inserted.

Neither append nor insert gives the new value of spam as its return value. Rather, the list is modified in place. Methods belong to a single data type. The append and insert methods are list methods and can be called only on list values, not on other values such as strings or integers. The remove method is good when you know the value you want to remove from the list. Sorting the Values in a List with the sort Method Lists of number values or lists of strings can be sorted with the sort method.

This means uppercase letters come before lowercase letters. Therefore, the lowercase a is sorted so that it comes after the uppercase Z. Instead of several lines of nearly identical elif statements, you can create a single list that the code works with. Open a new file editor window and enter the following code. Save it as magic8Ball2. There are some exceptions to this rule, however. For example, lists can actually span several lines in the source code file. The indentation of these lines do not matter; Python knows that until it sees the ending square bracket, the list is not finished.

Notice the expression you use as the index into messages: random. This produces a random number to use for the index, regardless of the size of messages. The benefit of this approach is that you can easily add and remove strings to the messages list without changing other lines of code.

If you later update your code, there will be fewer lines you have to change and fewer chances for you to introduce bugs. Many of the things you can do with lists can also be done with strings: indexing; slicing; and using them with for loops, with len , and with the in and not in operators.

A list value is a mutable data type: It can have values added, removed, or changed. However, a string is immutable: It cannot be changed. Notice that the original ‘Zophie a cat’ string is not modified because strings are immutable.

This is depicted in Figure In the first example, the list value that eggs ends up with is the same list value it started with. Figure depicts the seven changes made by the first seven lines in the previous interactive shell example.

The del statement and the append method modify the same list value in place. Mutable versus immutable types may seem like a meaningless distinction, but Passing References will explain the different behavior when calling functions with mutable arguments versus immutable arguments.

The Tuple Data Type The tuple data type is almost identical to the list data type, except in two ways. First, tuples are typed with parentheses, and , instead of square brackets, [ and ]. Tuples cannot have their values modified, appended, or removed. The comma is what lets Python know this is a tuple value. If you need an ordered sequence of values that never changes, use a tuple.

Converting Types with the list and tuple Functions Just like how str 42 will return ’42’, the string representation of the integer 42, the functions list and tuple will return list and tuple versions of the values passed to them. This is because spam and cheese are different variables that store different values. When you assign a list to a variable, you are actually assigning a list reference to the variable. A reference is a value that points to some bit of data, and a list reference is a value that points to a list.

Here is some code that will make this distinction easier to understand. The code changed only the cheese list, but it seems that both the cheese and spam lists have changed. This means the values stored in spam and cheese now both refer to the same list. There is only one underlying list because the list itself was never actually copied.

Remember that variables are like boxes that contain values. These references will have ID numbers that Python uses internally, but you can ignore them. Using boxes as a metaphor for variables, Figure shows what happens when a list is assigned to the spam variable.

Then, in Figure , the reference in spam is copied to cheese. Only a new reference was created and stored in cheese, not a new list. Note how both references refer to the same list. When you alter the list that cheese refers to, the list that spam refers to is also changed, because both cheese and spam refer to the same list. You can see this in Figure Variables will contain references to list values rather than list values themselves.

But for strings and integer values, variables simply contain the string or integer value. For values of immutable data types such as strings, integers, or tuples, Python variables will store the value itself. Although Python variables technically contain references to list or dictionary values, people often casually say that the variable contains the list or dictionary. Passing References References are particularly important for understanding how arguments get passed to functions. When a function is called, the values of the arguments are copied to the parameter variables.

To see the consequences of this, open a new file editor window, enter the following code, and save it as passingReference. Instead, it modifies the list in place, directly.

When run, this program produces the following output: [1, 2, 3, ‘Hello’] Even though spam and someParameter contain separate references, they both refer to the same list. This is why the append ‘Hello’ method call inside the function affects the list even after the function call has returned. Keep this behavior in mind: Forgetting that Python handles list and dictionary variables this way can lead to confusing bugs.

For this, Python provides a module named copy that provides both the copy and deepcopy functions. The first of these, copy. As you can see in Figure , the reference ID numbers are no longer the same for both variables because the variables refer to independent lists.

If the list you need to copy contains lists, then use the copy. The deepcopy function will copy these inner lists as well. Summary Lists are useful data types since they allow you to write code that works on a modifiable number of values in a single variable. Later in this book, you will see programs using lists to do things that would be difficult or impossible to do without them. Lists are mutable, meaning that their contents can change.

Tuples and strings, although list-like in some respects, are immutable and cannot be changed. A variable that contains a tuple or string value can be overwritten with a new tuple or string value, but this is not the same thing as modifying the existing value in place — like, say, the append or remove methods do on lists. Variables do not store list values directly; they store references to lists. This is an important distinction when copying variables or passing lists as arguments in function calls.

Because the value that is being copied is the list reference, be aware that any changes you make to the list might impact another variable in your program. You can use copy or deepcopy if you want to make changes to a list in one variable without modifying the original list. What is []? How would you assign the value ‘hello’ as the third value in a list stored in a variable named spam? Assume spam contains [2, 4, 6, 8, 10]. What does spam[-1] evaluate to? What does spam[:2] evaluate to?

What does bacon. What are the operators for list concatenation and list replication? What is the difference between the append and insert list methods? What are two ways to remove values from a list?

Name a few ways that list values are similar to string values. What is the difference between lists and tuples? How do you type the tuple value that has just the integer value 42 in it? How can you get the tuple form of a list value? How can you get the list form of a tuple value? What do they contain instead? What is the difference between copy. For example, passing the previous spam list to the function would return ‘apples, bananas, tofu, and cats’.

But your function should be able to work with any list value passed to it. The 0, 0 origin will be in the upper-left corner, the x-coordinates increase going right, and w the y-coordinates increase going down.

Copy the previous grid value, and write code that uses it to print the image. Hint: You will need to use a loop in a loop in order to print grid[0][0], then grid[1][0], then grid[2][0], and so on, up to grid[8][0].

This will finish the first row, so then print a newline. Then your program should print grid[0][1], then grid[1][1], then grid[2] [1], and so on. The last thing your program will print is grid[8][5]. Dictionaries and Structuring Data In this chapter, I will cover the dictionary data type, which provides a flexible way to access and organize data. The Dictionary Data Type Like a list, a dictionary is a collection of many values.

But unlike indexes for lists, indexes for dictionaries can use many different data types, not just integers. Indexes for dictionaries are called keys, and a key with its associated value is called a key-value pair. The values for these keys are ‘fat’, ‘gray’, and ‘loud’, respectively. Lists Unlike lists, items in dictionaries are unordered.

The first item in a list named spam would be spam[0]. While the order of items matters for determining whether two lists are the same, it does not matter in what order the key- value pairs are typed in a dictionary. You can use a dictionary with the names as keys and the birthdays as values. Save it as birthdays. When you run this program, it will look like this: Enter a name: blank to quit Alice Apr 1 is the birthday of Alice Enter a name: blank to quit Eve I do not have birthday information for Eve What is their birthday?

Dec 5 Birthday database updated. Enter a name: blank to quit Eve Dec 5 is the birthday of Eve Enter a name: blank to quit Of course, all the data you enter in this program is forgotten when the program terminates.

The values returned by these methods are not true lists: They cannot be modified and do not have an append method. If you want a true list from one of these methods, pass its list-like return value to the list function.

You can also use the multiple assignment trick in a for loop to assign the key and value to separate variables. You can also use these operators to see whether a certain key or value exists in a dictionary. Fortunately, dictionaries have a get method that takes two arguments: the key of the value to retrieve and a fallback value to return if that key does not exist. The first argument passed to the method is the key to check for, and the second argument is the value to set at that key if the key does not exist.

The method returns the value ‘black’ because this is now the value set for the key ‘color’. When spam. The setdefault method is a nice shortcut to ensure that a key exists. Here is a short program that counts the number of occurrences of each letter in a string. Open the file editor window and enter the following code, saving it as characterCount. This program will work no matter what string is inside the message variable, even if the string is millions of characters long!

This is helpful when you want a cleaner display of the items in a dictionary than what print provides. Modify the previous characterCount. If you want to obtain the prettified text as a string value instead of displaying it on the screen, call pprint. These two lines are equivalent to each other: pprint.

Each player would set up a chessboard at their home and then take turns mailing a postcard to each other describing each move. To do this, the players needed a way to unambiguously describe the state of the board and their moves.

In algebraic chess notation, the spaces on the chessboard are identified by a number and letter coordinate, as in Figure The coordinates of a chessboard in algebraic chess notation The chess pieces are identified by letters: K for king, Q for queen, R for rook, B for bishop, and N for knight. Describing a move uses the letter of the piece and the coordinates of its destination.

A pair of these moves describes what happens in a single turn with white going first ; for instance, the notation 2. Nf3 Nc6 indicates that white moved a knight to f3 and black moved a knight to c6 on the second turn of the game. Your opponent can even be on the other side of the world!

Computers have good memories. A program on a modern computer can easily store billions of strings like ‘2. Nf3 Nc6’. This is how computers can play chess without having a physical chessboard. They model data to represent a chessboard, and you can write code to work with this model. This is where lists and dictionaries can come in. You can use them to model real-world things, like chessboards.

To represent the board with a dictionary, you can assign each slot a string-value key, as shown in Figure You can use a dictionary of values for this. The string value with the key ‘top-R’ can represent the top-right corner, the string value with the key ‘low-L’ can represent the bottom-left corner, the string value with the key ‘mid-M’ can represent the middle, and so on. The slots of a tic-tactoe board with their corresponding keys This dictionary is a data structure that represents a tic-tac-toe board.

Store this board-as-a- dictionary in a variable named theBoard. Open a new file editor window, and enter the following source code, saving it as ticTacToe. An empty tic-tac-toe board Since the value for every key in theBoard is a single-space string, this dictionary represents a completely clear board. Player O wins. Of course, the player sees only what is printed to the screen, not the contents of variables.

Make the following addition to ticTacToe. You could have organized your data structure differently for example, using keys like ‘TOP-LEFT’ instead of ‘top-L’ , but as long as the code works with your data structures, you will have a correctly working program. For example, the printBoard function expects the tic-tac-toe data structure to be a dictionary with keys for all nine slots. If the dictionary you passed was missing, say, the ‘mid-L’ key, your program would no longer work.

Modify the ticTacToe. Move on which space? Nested Dictionaries and Lists Modeling a tic-tac-toe board was fairly simple: The board needed only a single dictionary value with nine key-value pairs. As you model more complicated things, you may find you need dictionaries and lists that contain other dictionaries and lists.

Lists are useful to contain an ordered series of values, and dictionaries are useful for associating keys with values. The totalBrought function can read this data structure and calculate the total number of an item being brought by all the guests. If it does not exist as a key, the get method returns 0 to be added to numBrought. But realize that this same totalBrought function could easily handle a dictionary that contains thousands of guests, each bringing thousands of different picnic items.

Then having this information in a data structure along with the totalBrought function would save you a lot of time! You can model things with data structures in whatever way you like, as long as the rest of the code in your program can work with the data model correctly.

Summary You learned all about dictionaries in this chapter. Lists and dictionaries are values that can contain multiple values, including other lists and dictionaries. Dictionaries are useful because you can map one item the key to another the value , as opposed to lists, which simply contain a series of values in order. Values inside a dictionary are accessed using square brackets just as with lists.

Instead of an integer index, dictionaries can have keys of a variety of data types: integers, floats, strings, or tuples. You saw an example of this with a tic-tac-toe board.

That just about covers all the basic concepts of Python programming! These modules, written by other programmers, provide functions that make it easy for you to do all these things. What does the code for an empty dictionary look like? What does a dictionary value with a key ‘foo’ and a value 42 look like? What is the main difference between a dictionary and a list? If a dictionary is stored in spam, what is the difference between the expressions ‘cat’ in spam and ‘cat’ in spam.

What is a shortcut for the following code? Fantasy Game Inventory You are creating a fantasy video game. The addToInventory function should return a dictionary that represents the updated inventory. Note that the addedItems list can contain multiples of the same item. Manipulating Strings Text is one of the most common forms of data your programs will handle.

You can extract partial strings from string values, add or remove spacing, convert letters to lowercase or uppercase, and check that strings are formatted correctly.

You can even write Python code to access the clipboard for copying and pasting text. String Literals Typing string values in Python code is fairly straightforward: They begin and end with a single quote. Official website: mulesoft.

See also: ServiceMix. Official website: mysql. Official website: nano-editor. Official website: netbeans. See also: Eclipse , Java. Official website: nodejs. Official website: notepad-plus-plus. Official website: developer.

Official website: pari. Official website: iso. Official website: quarkus. See also: Fedora , Linux , rpm. Official website: jboss. See also: Linux , Fedora , Red Hat. See also: Ruby on Rails.

Official website: rubyonrails. Official website: sagemath. Official website: scala-lang. Official website: seleniumhq. Official website: servicemix. See also: Apache , Mule. Official website: github. Official website: springsource. See also: Java , Spring Roo. See also: Java , Spring Framework. Official website: httpd. See also: Apache , Design Pattern , Java. Official website: ttcn Official website: unrealengine.

Official website: vaadin. Official website: wicket. Official website: Windows Communication Foundation. See also: Windows ,. Official website: microsoft. Official website: code. Then click to select any of the available colors. You can also format page backgrounds in OneNote to add rule lines or grid lines.

This simulates the look of notebook or graph paper. Then select a line color from the side menu of choices that appears. You little ripper!! Thank you so much for this! This was really useful, again thanks! Thank you Jamie! Your reply for Mike Siesel was Amazing!! Trying to learn Photoshop by myself so your cheat sheet is super useful. You are so nice to the haters too Lol. Bad job. Absolutely useless. Thanks for the comment Mike.

I have created a print friendly version just for you…. Thanks for making these Jamie. I think they are excellent. Trying to learn this software at nearly 60 yrs old and I need all the help I can get. Wow Mike, go make your own then. And ungrateful. Thank you Jamie for making this awesome reference sheet that probably took a lot of time to put together!

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The following two tabs change content below. Bio Latest Posts. My name is Jamie Spencer and I have spent the past 10 years building money making blogs.

After growing tired of the , commuting and never seeing my family I decided that I wanted to make some changes and launched my first blog. Since then I have launched lots of successful niche blogs and after selling my survivalist blog I decided to teach other people how to do the same.

Latest posts by Jamie Spencer see all. Sincerely, Robert Patrick Hartle Reply. Jamie Thank You for these cheat sheets!



Adobe Photoshop Keyboard Shortcuts Cheat Sheet – Make A Website Hub – Format Page Backgrounds in OneNote: Instructions

Here are my Lightroom and Bridge shortcuts too. Transform selections, selection borders, and paths. Is this accurate for the current version of Photoshop CC? Big dark text one white is ideal for old eyes. Luminance Targeted Adjustment tool.


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